The antenna is a kind of converter that transforms the guided wave propagating on the transmission line into an electromagnetic wave propagating in an unbounded medium, or vice versa. A component used in radio equipment to transmit or receive electromagnetic waves. Engineering systems such as radio communications, broadcasting, television, radar, navigation, electronic countermeasures, remote sensing, radio astronomy, etc., all use electromagnetic waves to transmit information and rely on antennas to work. In addition, in the use of electromagnetic waves to transmit energy, non-signal energy radiation also requires an antenna. Generally, antennas are reversible, that is, the same antenna can be used as both a transmitting antenna and a receiving antenna. The basic characteristic parameters of the same antenna as transmitting or receiving are the same. This is the reciprocity theorem of antennas.
In the mobile communication network engineering design, base station antennas should be selected reasonably according to actual conditions such as network coverage requirements, traffic distribution, anti-interference requirements, and network service quality.